『주홍글씨』와 『와인즈버그, 오하이오』에 등장하는 패배자들에 관한 연구


A Study of the Losers Who Appear in The Scarlet Letter and Winesburg, Ohio


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Back in the early twentieth century, Erich Fromm, a famous psychologist, claimed that human relations in modern society are based on trading economy, because modern people do not have faith in the moral principles by which life ought to be guided. However, according to Fromm, such business relations are not in harmony with human nature. As Fromm pointed out, today’s human relations are problematic, considering that they are based on trading economy rather than moral values. This thesis aims to study the problems of human relations in modern society, with its focus on the win-or-lose culture. And The Scarlet Letter and Winesburg, Ohio are examined to this end. Both of the novels were written during the transient period when America changed from a traditional society to a modern society. For this reason, these novels disclose the bad effects of modernization, especially the bad effects on human relations. Hester Prynne, the heroine of The Scarlet Letter, is a loser in the sense that she was outcast and despised by the surrounding people during her lifetime. The inhumane behaviors of the Puritans toward Hester are related to the individualistic anxiety caused by Calvinism. Similarly, modern people are suffering from individualistic anxiety, even though it is not in terms of religion. And the individualistic anxiety represses human nature that loves righteousness and morality. The immoral and inhumane behaviors done in the name of loser today can be understood in this context. Winesburg, Ohio criticizes that industrialization undermined the foundation of human relations. In the short story “Godliness,” Jesse Bentley is obsessed with the desire for success, which causes conflicts and alienation in his relationship with his daughter. Meanwhile, “Paper Pills” suggests that the experience of losing can be valuable, because it teaches us how to understand people with compassion. In conclusion, it seems that what improves the world eventually is love, not competition.


I. 서론
 II. 『주홍글씨』
  1. 외로움의 고통
  2. 종교개혁과 개인주의적 불안감
  3. 현대사회와 불안감
 III. 『와인즈버그, 오하이오』
  1. 패배의 이야기
  2. 「경건함」
  3. 「종이 알맹이들」
 IV. 결론
 Works Cited


  • 이경화 Kyeong-Hwa Lee. 단국대학교


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