Review Article

Virtual reality-based gait rehabilitation intervention for stroke individuals : a scoping review


Minjoon Kim, Fuminari Kaneko

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.19 No.2 2023.04 pp.95-104
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Virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation is rapidly gaining interest and has been shown to be an intervention to facilitate motor learning in bal-ance and gait rehabilitation. A review of the current literature is needed to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of VR-based gait physiotherapy for stroke patients. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Search terms included: “virtual reality,” “stroke,” “gait,” and “physical therapy.” Articles published in a peer-reviewed journal between 2017 and 2021 were considered. The in-tervention was mainly related to the use of VR as a therapeutic modali-ty, and the outcome was gait performance. The initial search identified 329 articles. After an eligibility review, 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Most of participants were in a chronic stage and were between 14 and 85 years old. The VR-based gait training ranged from nonimmersive to immersive, was mostly per-formed on a treadmill, and was usually combined with conventional physiotherapy. The duration of the program varied from 10 to 60 min, and there were about 9 to 30 sessions. VR-based gait rehabilitation has a positive effect on gait ability. The existing literature suggests that VR-based rehabilitation combined with conventional physiotherapy could improve gait ability of people with stroke, especially in the chronic stage. However, the duration of VR-based programs should be customized to suit individuals to avoid stimulation sickness. Further research is need-ed to investigate the long-term effects of this approach.


Search strategy
Study selection
Study context
Participant characteristics
VR systems
VR-based physiotherapy intervention
Robot-assisted gait training
Treadmill walking
Stationary walking
Other types of interventions


  • Minjoon Kim Department of Clinical Rehabilitation Research, National Rehabilitation Center and National Rehabilitation Research Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
  • Fuminari Kaneko Department of Physical Therapy, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan


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