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토마스 아퀴나스의 폭력에 대한 이해


Thomas Aquinas on Violence


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Thomas Aquinas, the renown Christian theologian of the thirteenth century, was also a philosopher in his own right. He treated nearly all the important philosophical problems of his time and he also treated the problem of violence extensively from diverse perspectives. Thomas Aquinas did not treat violence as such in a separate work. He, however, he came to treat various forms of violence in different contexts. In defining violence, Aristotle had not distinguished it clearly from coercion. Thomas Aquinas accepted his definition of violence: Violence is an act which is against the natural tendency of a thing or against the human voluntary act. But not all such acts, however, are acts of violence and also there are other kinds of acts of violence. Therefore, the above definition is nothing more than the definition of coercion. Thomas Aquinas did not give a definition of violence of his own. But one can readily discern his understanding of violence from his use of the term, violence, in various theological and philosophical contexts. For him, violence is any use of power which is against the reason, or which is not rationally justifiable. Thomas Aquinas considers various types of acts of violence in the contexts of man’s relation to nature, of his voluntary act, of his relation with fellow men and of the human community and finally of man’s relation to God. According to him, apart from the acts of violence against God, the most serious acts of violence are those against the human person, his dignity and inalienable rights in the individual relations and in the socio-political community. Nearly all the contemporary forms of violence are ultimately reducible to the basic types of violence which Thomas Aquinas analysed. Therefore, Thomas Aquinas’ comprehensive analysis of acts of violence can serve not only as a valuable historical background but also as a metaphysical background for the study of the contemporary forms of violence. Nevertheless, in order to understand the contemporary forms of violence, it does not suffice to have the knowledge of an abstract definition of violence and of its various genera according to the objects of violence, how valuable such a knowledge may be. For that purpose, it is necessary to have also a knowledge of the specifically contemporary forms of violence as well as a critical assessment of the essence and characteristics of the contemporary Western culture, from which they originate or with which they at least have close relationships.


1. 폭력의 본질
  1) 폭력 개념의 기원 / 2) 폭력 개념의 내포 / 3) 폭력의 정의
2. 성 토마스의 폭력과 연관된 신학적, 형이상학적, 인간학적, 
   윤리학적 그리고 정치철학적 원리들
  1) 신학적 원리들과 형이상학적 원리들
  2) 인간학적 원리들
    가. 인간 본질의 특징 / 나. 인간 실존의 특징    
  3) 윤리학적 원리들
    가. 행복을 추구하는 존재로서의 인간
    나. 인간의 자발적 행위 / 다. 인간 행위의 기준
  4) 성 토마스의 정치철학의 원리들
    가. 법과 자연법 / 나. 정 의
  5) 평 화
  6) 카리타스
3. 성 토마스의 정치 사상
  1) 성 토마스의 정치학에 대한 저작
  2) 국 가
  3) 공권력
  4) 군주: 통치자, 입법자, 최고 재판관 
  5) 저항권
  6) 교회의 권위와 국가의 권위
4. 성 토마스 사상에 있어서의 네 가지 폭력
  1) 신에 대한 폭력
  2) 자연에 대한 폭력
  3) 자신과 타인에 대한 폭력
    가. 자신 안의 폭력과 자신에 대한 폭력 / 나. 타인에 대한 폭력
  4) 공권력에 대한 폭력
5. 결 론


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