Assessing the Effectiveness of Smartphone Usage to Interact with Learning Materials in Independent Learning Outside of Classrooms among Undergraduate Students



Clearly, the smartphone is increasingly playing a greater role in everyday life, thus providing opportunities to evaluate how well the use of the smartphone meets the requirements of undergraduate students in independent learning outside of a classroom setting. This study used the task-technology fit (TTF) model to explore the effectiveness of smartphone usage to interact with learning materials in independent learning outside of classrooms, the need for smartphone support, and the fit of devices to tasks as well as performance. First, the study used interviews, observation, and survey data to identify what are the most important constructs of smartphones that stimulate students to interact with learning materials in independent learning outside of classrooms. Based on the findings from the exploratory study and Task Technology Fit theory, we postulated the Navigation design, Ergonomic design, Content support, and Capacity as the essential dimension of the smartphone construct. Then, we proposed a research model and empirically tested hypotheses with the structural model analysis. The results reveal a significant positive impact of task and technology on TTF for smartphone usage to interact with learning materials in independent learning outside of classrooms; it also confirmed the TTF and performance have a direct effect on actual use.


Ⅰ. Introduction
Ⅱ. Theoretical Background
2.1. Task-technology Fit Theory
2.2. Adoption of smartphone in Education
2.3. Smartphone Technology
Ⅲ. Research Model and Hypotheses
3.1. Identification of Smartphone Components and Procedure
3.2. Modeling TTF of Smartphones Usage to Interact with Learning Materials in Independent Learning Outside of Classrooms and Hypotheses
Ⅳ. Research Methodology
4.1. Instrument Development
4.2. Procedures and Research Sampling
4.3. Measurement Methodology
Ⅴ. Research Results
5.1. Questionnaire Test and Procedures
5.2. Main Survey Sampling Source and Data Analysis
5.3. Factor Analysis
5.4. First-order and Second-order Model Test
5.5. The Measurement Model
5.6. The Structural Path Model Analysis
Ⅵ. Discussion
Ⅶ. Conclusion and Contribution
Ⅷ. Practical Implications
Ⅸ. Limitation and Future Direction


  • Sununthar Vongjaturapat Lecturer, Faculty of Humanities, Ramkhamkaeng University, Thailand
  • Nopporn Chotikakamthorn Associate Professor, Faculty of Information Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand
  • Panitnat Yimyam Lecturer, Faculty of Sciences and Social Sciences Burapha University, Sakaeo Campus Sakaeo, Thailand


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