The Turkish nation established two major states in western Asia, Seljuk and Ottoman. In the 17th century, when the territory of the Ottoman Empire was at its largest, its borders reached the vast majority of Asia, Europe and Africa. The expansion of the borders has increased the cultural diversity. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed after World War I, the Republic of Turkey was founded and has continued this cultural diversity. For this reason, Turkish society has a multicultural structure. Not only various ethnicities exist but also religions are diverse. Turkey's official language is Turkish but since it is a multicultural society many languages are spoken. This study will examine the structure of cultural diversity and multiculturalism in Turkey. South Korea's multicultural structure will also be briefly mentioned. The study will then mention the bilingual education in Turkey.
Ⅱ. Theoretical Background Cultural Diversity in Turkey and its Multicultural Structure
1. Existing Languages and Bilingual Education in Turkey