The Characteristics of Human Beings and the Methodology of Zhuangzi's Tao(道)


Taeho, Son

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What are the characteristics of human beings in a realistic sense? A philosophical comparison of human beings and animals was thought to be useful for understanding human existence. Recently, thanks to advances in technology, a machine can satisfy the needs and demands of human beings as animals did in the past. This leads us to pose the following question: - designed and manufactured by human beings, can a sophisticated robot evolve to become like a human? Ordinary people have high hopes for this project. However, even if science and technology develops to an extremely high level, doubts exist over whether robots could reach the level of autonomy of animals. Moreover, we can by no means be certain that we could create humanoid robots comparable to human beings. Meanwhile, by studying robotics and robot ethics, we can expect to gain a new perspective on the nature of humanity. Opposition to mechanization continues to be voiced by many philosophers from the modern era. According to Gehlen, human beings are excessively impulsive, and impulse must be sublimated. By cultivating and sublimating impulse, their creativity should be achieved. Moreover, an extremely degenerated human, can sometimes be converted into the most creative person. In other words, decadence and indolence can be considered potential for exploring new ideas of self rather than a mere waste of time. From this argument, we can also see that the most essential human attribute is creativity. In the modern world, failures of education, happiness, physical and mental health, are universal problems. In recent years the proportion of the population dissatisfied with aspects of their lives has been growing. Therefore, relying solely on human intellect, makes people’s lives more and more painful. Normally, humans are the ones who lose their "creative possibilities" because they are bound by desire, planning and intent. The most efficient way to free yourself from this "self-made prison" is to return to primary deficiencies. This can be called "initialization". The method of 'initialization' allows access to "world openness". Ancient Chinese thinkers had the opportunity to initialize through various funeral and ritual ceremonies.


1. Introduction
2. The philosophers of life
3. Characteristics of Human Beings
4. Bergson and Deleuze
5. The idea that values the ‘none’(貴無思想) of Zhuangzi


  • Taeho, Son Department of Philosophy, Humanities college, Pusan National University, Korea


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