<Korean Wave over the World>

Korean Wave 3.0 with reference to K-pop


CHUN In Pyong

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Korean Wave (Hallyu; ‘韓流’) referred first to the meaning of “the fashion of Korea surges” written and published by Beijing Youth Daily, China as early as November 1999. Development of the latest smart media makes the Korean Wave contents disseminating rapidly. The existing Korean Wave was a limited flow relating to the middle aged female class in Eastern Asia, while the Korean Wave centred on K-pop since the late 2000s is different in the method of dissemination. The latter is renamed as the ‘New Korean Wave (新 韓流)’ which has been spread by social media and exported to the USA, Europe, South America, and so on. The primary distribution base of the New Korean Wave includes SNS (Social Network Service) media – i.e. YouTube, iTunes, Facebook, Twitter, Blog, etc., which suit the characteristics of K-pop genre. The Korean Wave 3.0 can be the period of ‘diversification of the Korean Wave’. Periodically it starts with the huge success of Gangnam Style performed by Psy in 2012. As an important genre, it became spread to music, drama, game, film, cartoon, character, Korean cuisine, Korean language. Geographically it has been diffused further Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Africa, the USA, etc., beyond China, Japan, Taiwan. The main contents include K-pop, Idols and on-line gaming. In particular, the enormous success of Gangnam Style brought to the event that broadened boundaries across the world. The Korean Wave that has been in great demand is now, however, receiving a great shock with the anti-Korean Wave in Japan and the China’s retaliation against Thaad. Luckily the Hallyu marketing is beyond the confine of China and Japan. As heavy reliance on China and Japan can be variable according to the political situations, it is necessary for us to make more efforts for Hallyu marketing.


The Hallyu effects
Korean Traditional Music and K-pop
The factors of the K-pop success
Anti-Hallyu in Japan and the shock of China’s retaliation against Thaad


  • CHUN In Pyong Emeritus Professor of Chung Ang University


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