한국 이민정책의 배제・동화프레임 : 이주노동자와 여성결혼이민자정책을 중심으로


Exclusion Frame & Assimilation Frame of Immigration Policy in Korea : Focused on Policy of Immigration Workers and Marriage Immigrant Women


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The Korean immigration policy displays a dual frame. Viewing from outside it looks accommodating and integrating the foreign immigrants residing in the Korean society without discrimination, under the name of 'multicultural policy', but the reality of the policy is not quite like that. The target for the detailed practice of the immigration policy is to integrate all the residence within Korea and to promote common prosperity. It is also macroscopically for the all the residence of Korea and resident aliens, and microscopically for the mid-and long stay foreigners who have migrated and lived in Korea over one year. The numbers of the mid-and long term stay foreigners in Korea are approximately over 1.80 millions as of 2015. The composition of their population is classified into: about 560 thousand immigrant workers; about 180 thousand marriage immigrant women, about 300 thousand Chinese-registered Korean Chinese, about 80 thousand foreign students, and then undocumented foreigners. The issue is that the Korean immigration policy has conflicting political approaches towards those immigrant workers and the marriage immigrant women specifically, among the immigrants. The main targets of the current immigration policy for foreign residents are the immigrant workers and marriage immigrant women, excluding the Koreans with foreign nationality and the foreign students whose population is relatively small. Considering the not-so-long experience of the Korean immigration policy and the short history of emigration to Korea, it might seem to be not strange or unproblematic that the different or conflicting approaches to the different classes of the immigrants. However, the analysis results and insides of the Korean immigration policy has revealed that the political aspects of the policy is not desirable, furthermore, it may be a quite negative policy against social integration of the members of the national community in the future. A large part of such dual framework of the government's immigration policy already has set in. However, the very dualism that applies differently to the different target has gradually become the keyword questioning the flexibility, openness and the acceptability of the Korean society. Both the exclusion policy for the immigrant workers that justifies seeking economic benefit, and the assimilation policy for the marriage immigrant women that premises unconditional assimilation into the nation are excessively national oriented and one sided policies. The dual framework of Korean immigration policy is influenced by the policy that differentiates relevant ministry according to the target, however, more fundamental background of the dual framework arises from the deep-rooted homogeneous-, monoculture-myth mindset of Korean society, and the patriarchal way of thinking, as well as downrating attitude towards the workers. Thus, in order to convert Korean immigration policy with the above background to a new policy structure, it is necessary to establish a meta framework that can reopen and accept, as well as achieve true social integration of the Korean natives and the immigrants is very urgent. It is because the analysis result of this research has revealed that the dual framework of the current Korean immigration policy tends to bring about more undesirable results with time, therefore, it seems an inappropriate policy for the coexistence of the future natives and the immigrants in Korean society.


한국의 이민정책은 이주노동자에게는 배제지향의 정책프레임으로 작동하고 여성결혼이민자에게 는 동화지향의 정책프레임으로 작동하여 프레임의 충돌현상을 낳고 있다. 이는 한국이 이민자를 사 회 공동체 안에서 수용하고 통합하기보다는 대상에 따라 구분하여 갈등을 더 확대하고 있다는 지적 을 하게한다. 이 글은 이러한 정부 이민정책의 이중성 프레임이 이미 상당부분 고착화되어 가고 있 음에 주목하였다. 이에 이를 진단하여 통합프레임으로 전환하기 위한 방향을 모색하는데 글의 초점 을 둔다. 이를 위해 먼저 한국 이민정책이 시기별로 어떻게 형성 되어왔는지를 살펴본다. 그리고 시 기별 상황논리에 따라 자연스럽게 정책의 대상으로 주목되며 선택된 이주노동자와 여성결혼이민자 에 대한 정책내용을 정책목적. 정책수단, 행위자로 구분하여 분석하고 이의 배제적 특성과 동화적 특성을 살펴본다. 이러한 분석을 토대로 글이 제시하고자 하는 것은 대상에 따라 다르게 적용되는 정책의 두 프레임이 장차 통합프레임으로 전환되어야 한다는 것이다. 이 글의 함의는 이주노동자와 여성결혼이민자는 이민자라는 하나의 정책범주 안에 있으며 따라서 그 사회통합을 위한 정책의 목 적도 다르지 않다는 것에 있다.


Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 한국 이민정책의 두 프레임
1. 이민정책의 개념
2. 배제・동화 프레임
3. 연구의 분석틀
Ⅲ. 한국 이민정책의 배제・동화프레임 분석
1. 정책의 형성
2. 배제정책 프레임 분석
3. 동화정책 프레임 분석
Ⅳ. 결론


  • 김태환 Tae-Hwan Kim. 한중대 이민정보정책연구소 전임연구원/행정학 박사


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