Original Article

Treadmill exercise and wheel exercise improve motor function by suppressing apoptotic neuronal cell death in brain inflammation rats


Sang-Hyuk Song, Yong-Seok Jee, Il-Gyu Ko, Sang-Won Lee, Young-Je Sim, Dae-Young Kim, Sam-Jun Lee, Young Sam Cho

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.6 2018.12 pp.911-919
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Brain inflammation is involved in many brain disorders, such as brain ischemic injury, Alzheimer diseases, and Parkinson disease. Physical exercise has been recommended for the prevention and treatment of many brain inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the effects of exercise on motor function in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death following neuroinflammation were investigated. Moreover, we compared the effect of forced exercise with voluntary exercise on neu-roinflammation-induced motor malfunction. For this study, rota-rod test, vertical pole test, foot fault test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemis-try for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax were performed. Lipopolysaccharide was intraventricular infused for induction of brain inflammation. Treadmill exercise and wheel exercise were conducted during 6 weeks. In the present results, Treadmill exercise and wheel ex-ercise alleviated brain inflammation-induced motor impairments by suppressing apoptotic neuronal cell death in the motor cortex. These effects of treadmill exercise and wheel exercise were similarly ap-peared.


Animals and grouping
Induction of brain inflammation
Treadmill exercise protocol
Wheel exercise protocol
Rota-rod test
Vertical pole test
Foot fault test
Tissue preparation
Western blot analysis
TUNEL assay
Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry
Data analysis
Rota-rod test
Vertical pole test
Foot fault test
Bcl-2 and Bax expressions in the motor cortex
TUNEL-positive cells in the motor cortex
Caspase-3 expression in the motor cortex


  • Sang-Hyuk Song Department of Physical Activity Design, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea
  • Yong-Seok Jee Department of Physical Activity Design, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea
  • Il-Gyu Ko Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
  • Sang-Won Lee Department of Physical Education, Korea Military Academy, Seoul, Korea
  • Young-Je Sim Department of Physical Education, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, Korea
  • Dae-Young Kim Department of Sports Healthcare, College of Humanities & Social Sciences, Inje University, Gimhae, Korea
  • Sam-Jun Lee Department of Physical Education, College of Health, Welfare, and Education, Tong Myong University, Busan, Korea
  • Young Sam Cho Department of Urology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


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