This study examines social and ecological resilience following the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill from the perspective of the Ecological Impacts (oil spill itself, Marine Physical Environment, Marine Biology), Social Impacts (Disaster Management, Economy, Compensations), and Social and Ecological Resilience (Human Health and Community Resilience, Policy and Decision). The Hebei Spirit Oil accident, which occurred in 2007, inflicted severe damage on fishery, tourism, the local society and ecosystem. The accident has led to issues such as ecological devastation, disintegration of the local economy, tarnished image of the local community, deteriorating health of its residents, and various kinds of local conflicts. This study develops the theoretical framework based on previous studies. We investigate the research based on government white papers, IOPC reports, the judgment of courts, government statistics, and interviews conducted in the damaged areas. We present several suggestions on methods to restore oil spill damage. First, it is necessary to establish long- and mid-term strategies to restore the ecosystem. Second, the government and local societies need to put more effort into revitalizing the local economy within affected areas. Third, problems that come to the surface during the process of responding to the accident must be addressed.