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논문검색

심사논문

사명유정(四溟惟政)의 선시(禪詩) 연구

원문정보

A Study on the Zen Poetry of Samyeong Yujeong

권동순(원법)

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초록

영어

This paper presents an investigation into the life and poems of Samyeong Yujeong(1544-1610), who served the country as a commander of monk soldiers during Imjinwaeran, by examining his collection of poetry and prose Samyeongdangdaesajip. Samyeong led the van for Buddhism to protect the nation, serving the nation and people after the war broke out as one of the representative members of national defense Buddhism. During his time, he was assessed in two ways: first, he was regarded as a "Confucian scholar in heart and Buddhist monk in appearance," and secondly, he was depicted as a "Buddhist priest embodying Daebisim based on exemplary administration and wisdom." The former reflected the position of Confucian scholars very much. That is, he presented himself as a true Confucian scholar by serving the king, saving the nation, and working for the people. The latter believed that all these activities of his derived thoroughly from his position as a Buddhist priest, trying to understanding his achievements within the big framework of salvation for all people. These contrasting evaluations of his life indicate that he represented an aspect of Buddhist monks reacting to a national crisis during Imjinwaeran when the government implemented policies to suppress Buddhism. Most of his poetry and prose was created during the war, having something to do with his participation in the war. His poems, however, offer some clues about the way that he reflected on his life as a man that entered Buddhist priesthood and Zen priest that did not forget his status as a Buddhist priest. In his response poems to Confucian scholars, he talked about Buddhist teachings to his duty as a Buddhist monk thinking of returning to the Buddhist community even though he was currently leading a life on the battlefield. His poems especially reflected his wish to implement Yeombulgyeolsa and Hwadu Suhaeng along with the Confucian scholars that he exchanged letters with. In his poems depicting the level of his realization and Uidandokro as a method to achieve realization, he showed the Zen world by using Zen sayings in the works. These poems well depicted his family tradition of Gibong Junyeol and further exhibited his character to fit his service as a commander of monk soldiers. In other words, his poems showed that both his life as a Buddhist priest and a commander of monk soldiers moved toward the convergence of Imjegapung based on "Gibong Junyeol." These are some of characteristics of his poetry different from other poems by Buddhist monks those days that described Buddhist teachings in secret expressions. His faithful attitude toward poetry writing based on Gibong Junyeol, which allowed him to talk about Buddhist teachings confidently in his poems as a Buddhist monk, had influences on the poetry writing attitudes of Buddhist monks following him and contributed to the maintenance and inheritance of the Zen poetry form, thus holding its significance. The present study examined the two aspects of Samyeong's life and the developmental patterns of his poetry and demonstrated clearly with his poetry and prose that he was faithful to the most basic aspects of his life as a Buddhist priest unlike previous studies, which focused on his activities as a monk soldier, Confucian ideas, and poetry and prose to depict his agony as a Buddhist priest and part of the people, thus claiming its significance.

한국어

본고는 임란시기 의승장으로 활동한 사명유정(四溟惟政, 1544-1610)의 시문집인 사명당집(四溟堂集)을 통해 사명의 생애와 시작품에 대해 살펴보았다. 사명의 삶에 대한 당대의 평가는 ‘마음은 유가이면서 모습은 승려’라는 유가적 입장에서와 ‘선정과 지혜로 대비심을 구현한 승려’라는 중생구제의 측면이었다. 이 상반된 평가를 통해 억불시기 승려들의 국가위기에 대응하는 한 양상을 볼 수 있었다. 사명의 시에는 승려의 삶과 의승장의 삶 모두가 ‘기봉준열’한 임제가풍으로 통섭되고 있다. 공문으로 돌아가기를 표현한 작품에서는 비록 전장에서의 삶이기는 하나, 항상 본분사로 돌아가 염불결사와 무자화두 등을 수행하기를 바라는 마음을 담아내었다. 또 의단독로(疑團獨露)를 시화한 작품에서는 선어를 사용하어 기봉(機鋒)이 준열(峻烈)한 가풍과 의승장에 부합되는 장군의 성품을 보여주었다. 이 출가자로서 당당하게 불법을 시문에 담아내고 있는 기봉준열의 직절적(直切的)인 작시 태도는 이 시기의 상당수 은미한 표현으로 불법을 드러낸 시와는 다른 사명의 시적 특질로 선시의 전형이 유지 계승되는 역할을 하고 있다. 이 논문은 기존 연구들이 의승활동의 유가적 사상, 그리고 승려와 백성사이에서 고뇌하는 시문에 초점을 둔 데에서, 우선 가장 기본적으로 이루어져야 할 승려로서의 면모를 시문을 통해 뚜렷이 증명해 보인 의의를 둘 수 있다.

목차

국문 초록
 Ⅰ. 머리말
 Ⅱ. 사명(四溟)의 행적(行蹟)에 대한 평가
  1. 내유이외선(內儒而外禪)
  2. 정혜이대비(定慧而大悲)
 Ⅲ. 기봉준열(機鋒峻烈)의 시세계(詩世界)
  1. 사귀공문(思歸空門)의 시현(示現)
  2. 의단독로(疑團獨露)의 시화(詩化)
 Ⅳ. 맺음말-시작품의 특징과 의의
 참고문헌
 Abstract

저자정보

  • 권동순(원법) Kwon, Dong-Soon (Ven. Won-Bub). 조계종 교육아사리, 운문사 승가대학교수

참고문헌

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