동상이몽의 타자경험, 조선통신사 - 소중화주의의 허상을 넘어 문학적 상상으로 -


Experiences of Other in Dreaming the Same or the Differentiated, Joseon Tongsinsa - Beyond the Illusion of Small-Sinocentrism to the Literary Imagination -


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This article examines the preoccupied worldviews of Joseon's teaching theory and Japan's introduction to the world, centering on the topic of 'communication', which means 'through faith' And to find the answer to the recreation of the new world through the literature imagined outside the system of the two countries. As a part of this, I paid attention to the phenomenon of contact between the two countries, which was inevitably occurred in Japan and the attendants who participated in the national events by the Joseon Dynasties. The contact made in the limited time and space condition is to avoid the creation of the discourse of the rational discourse of traditional diplomatic discourse which is the meaning of the object of the two cultures, the other, and to look at the new point of the commoner literary experience. In the late Joseon Dynasty, Joseon developed the original culture of the Joseon Dynasty and believed that the Joseon Dynasty enjoyed the most superior culture in the world at that time. If Joseon Dynasty was the process of accepting and understanding the Chinese culture, Chineseism) with the spirit of the times. The three countries of Joseon, China, and Japan established a long period of peace, and they were able to devote themselves to the construction of a neo-classical ideal state based on the stable international situation. Woo Kyung-sup also stated that the Confucian intellectuals had erased the responsibility of the destruction of the dynasties of nationalist historians who made critical insights into the situation of Joseon, which had fallen into colonial rule. In the early 1980s, Choi, Wan-Soo's positive evaluation and perception were newly attempted. The consciousness of selfconsciousness of the native culture of the 18th century, that is, after the fall of Korea, Joseon was the sole enemy of the lord and the consciousness of the contemporaries that Joseon regarded as neutralization. Furthermore, the Constitutional Court granted the historical value of 'Joseon Sinocenttrism' as a central ideological role that penetrated throughout the late Joseon Dynasty and systematized the concrete development of the post-Joseon Chinese ideology in terms of political thought. The development of Chinese thought in the late Joseon Dynasty is not a product of socialism such as the myths of the past but a source of cultural pride that succeeded in the reign of the Chinese who replaced Chung after the destruction of the world. And the need to reassess historical meaning. The meaning of 'Joseon Sinocenttrism' in this essay, while acknowledging the conclusion of the concept of 'Joseon Sinocenttrism' and the criticism raised in various aspects about the consciousness of the problem, also means 'Joseon Sinocenttrism' It is in conformity with the essay of this article to be interpreted as Joseon which is proud of Chinese. It can be said that the Japanese recognition of the Joseon correspondent of the past is due to excessive prejudice that the one-sided view of society and the level of their culture are seen extremely low. Korea emphasizes its character as a "cultural envoy" sent as part of its teachings, and Japan understands the diplomatic rituals of its telecommunications company as a "celebration of the crowd of generals" in relation to its own political forces and as political envoys. In other words, in order to actively cope with the change of the international order that was restructured after Byungjahoran (the Second Manchu invasion of Korea;1636), Joseon decided to send a "news agency" to secure peace in the south. However, on the basis of the cultural superiority, the purpose of 'teaching' was strong because of the combination of 'small - China consciousness, Joseon Sinocenttrism' based on cultural superiority. In particular, the character of the culture as a "Korean wave of Japanese culture" constitutes the mainstream of the evaluations of telcos. Japan, on the other hand, emphasized that Japan welcomed the telecommunications company and became Japan's top ruler and diplomat, as an internationally recognized official of the Tokugawa shogunate(徳川幕”), and showed his political superiority to domestic princes. In addition, based on the international order in Northeast Asia, we do not evaluate the telecommunication books, but rather evaluate the telecommunications companies in the Joseon Dynasty in the "Japanese style order". Miyake Hidetoshi (三宅英利) said, "In Japan, after the Edo era, it became an opportunity to establish a military supremacy for the various nations of the continent to the Japanese. It expanded the historical supremacy hall (Shinhwa legend, Imna Ilbu headquarters, Shilla tributary) It was reflected in the policy of the aftermath, which gave historical rationality to the diplomatic sensation based on the military power, and it formed the logic to justify the continental invasion. Confucianism must be presupposed after the Imjinwaeran (Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592) and Jungyujaeran(Japanese Second Invasion of Korea in 1597), which directly influence the telecommunications industry. As world view was the same as the ruling ideology of the Tokugawa shogunate, Fujiwara Seika(藤原惺 窩), Hayashi Razan(林羅山), Yamazaki Ansai(山崎闇斎) etc. of the Korean Zhu Jing school evaluated the study of Lee Hsien as a doctrine. A lot of Japanese Confucians and Buddhists came to the guesthouse of the Joseon Communication Office and its attendants, and they received the teachings of Toegye and welcomed the messengers as messengers of culturally advanced countries. However, there were Confucian scholars who disagreed. Let them develop their attitudes toward the so-called dualism centered on the following representative Confucian scholars. It is interesting how the Japanese formal poetry literature haiku was presented to the Korean news agency. Maeda Shigemichi, the ninth lord of the Kaga clan, who received a commemorative gift of souvenirs from the shogunate, was the most famous woman in the modern era of Japan. He was a haiku poet, Kagano Chiyo- Is the first person in the history of visiting telecommunication companies to put the commoner literature haiku of Japan in the public literary space. Matsuo Basho and Yosabuson in the private literary space sang Joseon news agency, but the public appearance of Haiku may be the personal intention of Maeda Shigemichi, I would like to pay attention to the point of excavation of Japanese culture which did not abolish. In fact, there were some people who enjoyed waka and haikai. For example, Park Duk-won, a vocalist who performed the telecommunications company in 1748(Hyeong-1), translated the song and haikai freely. According to the names of telecom attendants (Jin Young-mi) appearing in Joseon and the Japanese literature, it is regrettable that the name of Park is not shown. Therefore, I think that the existence of Pak Deokwon is not a backdoor party but a communist party. I would like to be an anonymous educator of a communication group symbolized by 'Pak Deukwon', who is considered to be considered an extraordinary work that simultaneously performed the duties of a diplomat and an interpreter in order to deepen understanding of Japanese culture. It can be said that the late Joseon and Japan both had time to confirm themselves through the experiences of other as a communication company. It attempted to solve the misunderstanding of Joseon and Japan by literary imagination, escaping the symmetrical political diplomacy discourse that inherited the reappearance and merging of closed history. And to reconstruct the literary discourse on a level different from the international situation in East Asia that has penetrated modern times. Though it is a destiny that can only be broken by eternal parallels, we have to find a single point of contact. It did not form a gigantic discourse, and it can be said that it originated from the simplistic literary demand of nature and life from the bottom.


本稿は第一、「信を通わす」意味の ‘通信’というテーマを中心に朝鮮の敎 化說と日本の入貢說の同床異夢の他者経験をめぐって所謂「小中華世界 観」を察することにする。第二、こういう両国の記憶の欠片を従来の制度圏 の外に想像された文学空間を通して新しい世界の再現を築くための糸口を模 索することにある。その一貫として朝鮮通信使による国をあげての一大行事に 参加した随行員と日本現地の人々は必然的に文化接触現象に注目した。 限られた時空間の諸条件の下で行われた出合いは両国における文化の対 象、即ち他者の意味を伝統的な外交言説から扱われた儒教的談論の漢詩 唱和を止揚し、庶民文学的経験の新しい地点で考察する。 朝鮮王朝滅亡の責任論を主張する民族歴史学者による否定的見解と激 しい批判を乗り越え、明の滅亡以後の儒学的世界は朝鮮を中心にする時代 精神を「朝鮮中華主義」と名乗ったのである。其れ故、朝鮮をはじめ清․日 本の東洋三国は長い間平和な性理学的理想国家の建設に励むことが出来 ると思ったのである。従って、本稿は「朝鮮中華主義」の概念は従来の小中 華を踏襲することから脱皮し、所謂、「文化朝鮮」の中華を自負する朝鮮に 解釈する論旨に沿っているといえよう。 歴代朝鮮通信使の日本観は一方的ともいえるほど蛮族視と低い文化水準 は過度な偏見からのものであった。文禄․慶長の役(壬辰․丁酉倭乱)によ る朝鮮と日本の国交断絶それから再開は、両国に歪んだ意識を知らぬ間に 固着させたし、外交の目的は同床異夢のそれであるかのように駆け上がる一 方の様相を余儀なく見せている。それは朝鮮の儒教文化使節としての教化 説と日本の恣意的入貢説とが真っ向から対立するのである。時に1627年の 丁卯の役(丁卯胡亂)と1636年から1637年にかけての丙子の役(丙子胡乱) は国際秩序の変化を齎すことになり、朝鮮は南の安全を確保する次元から日 本に通信使を派遣することになる。しかし、大義名分を振り翳すのは文化的 優越の朝鮮中華主義と日本夷狄觀とが混ざり合った教化は依然として変りは なかったのである。これに対して日本は来日する朝鮮通信使を通して徳川幕 府の将軍の地位を国際的に認められ、国内諸大名を凌駕する政治的優位 の自己顕示にあったのである。延いては日本型華夷秩序の意識から朝鮮通 信使を認めているのである。それは朝鮮の文化力に対して日本の軍事力を 早く神功皇后の三韓征伐、任那日本付、新羅․百済․高句麗の朝貢を 歴史的優越観につがったのである。こういう歴史的合理性を与えられ、韓国 に対する拡大政策を名分化する論理が成り立ったともいえよう。中世を歴て近 世江戸時代における林羅山․新井白石․雨森芳洲․中井竹山などの儒 者の儒教的世界観も朝鮮を見る建前であれ本音であれ基本的には朝鮮蔑 視観は変わることなく、二重性を持ち続けたのは事実である。 よって、政治的․外交的同床異夢を脱皮するための一つの解決案として 取り上げたのが「文学」による他者経験である。 前田重敎の俳句言説は前代未聞の言語談論を試している。それは当時 一の女流俳人の加賀千代女の俳句、即ち、漢詩とは代わって庶民文学の 代表的詩の俳諧を、所謂、公的文学空間に登場させたのである。勿論、 私的文学空間で朝鮮通信使を詠んだ松尾芭蕉や与謝蕪村などがいらう が、俳句の公的な場への進出は、前田重敎の個人的な意見であったかの ように思われるが、漢詩に代わって、日本の文化の再発見によるものに注目 したいのである。前田は地元の一流俳人の加賀千代女にして生涯を通して 句作に専念し、自然と日常の瞬間捉えた美を女性の繊細な目で解きほぐさ せている歌を日本の精神文化として朝鮮通信使に二十一句の俳句を献上し たのである。因みに彼女の代表作の「朝顔につるべ取られてもらい水」は芭 蕉の名句「古池や蛙飛びこむ水の音」とともに世間に広く知られている。 一方、朝鮮通信使の随行として、所謂、訳官と呼ばれる階層によるエ リートたちの日本文学の享有があれである。しかし、俳句や和歌に対する支 配下級の士大夫階層の関心は全くなかったようであるが、中人階級の実務 官僚の訳官は相当活発に和歌と俳句創作に腕前を振るっている。本稿で は、朴德源․卞文圭の二人の訳官の作品を紹介した。特に朴德源の場 合、彼の名前は通信使一行のリストに見えない事実である。これは朴德源 の存在は党上訳官ではなく、訳官の補佐役の小通事であった可能性が濃 いと思われる。或いは、ろくにも名乗りを上げることさえできない低い身分の人 であると推測される。しかし、長い間、外交実務と通訳仕事など実際的な日 本語に堪能な随行員は中人訳官の部外者たちが‘朴德源’として象徴される 小通事の教養人に解釈した。 近世の朝鮮と日本両国は通信使という他者経験を通して、自己確認をし たといえよう。要するに、閉鎖的歴史の再現と併合を受け継いだ同床異夢 的な政治外交談論から逃れ、文学的想像の道を歩くことによって両国に降り 積もった誤解の解決を模索した。近世を通じる東アジア国際情勢とは別の次 元から文学談論の再構成にある。それは一つの接点とも言えるし、下から咲 き始める自然と人生を眺める素樸な文学的発露なのである。名前も知らぬ数 多い通訳あるいは俳句を詠める低い身分の随行員があったはずであると思わ れる。彼らにして、日本の俗の世界の人々との自然的な出合いを繰り返すこ とが重なるたび、俳句を媒介に、僅かながら両国の文人の文学的つながりを 見つけることができたのである。両国の固定する視線の儒教な文学空間に 止まった漢詩に代わって、日本から先取られてしまった自国語文学の登場は 新しい自覚は意味深いことと思われる。日本語で詠んだ精神世を加賀千代 女の俳句を以て朝鮮通信使に献上したとは、筆者の心は、朝鮮通信使の 一行の中、時調の紹介をしたちいうなら、否、それほど加賀千代女の日本 語詩歌が両国語で読み替え、名を知らぬ誰かが小中華主義的文学の漢 詩を離れて朝鮮と日本両国の中華主義的漢詩を離れ、それぞれ自国語文 学が通信使往来空間で享有と継承できそうも無いわけではないのである。そ れか両国固有の詩歌は強いることによる文学では決して、詩歌を通じて、政 治談論のような‘時代精神’の歪んだ隙間を埋めるめることのできる吳越同舟と 同舟濟江’あるいは‘同舟濟江の展開様相も模索する智恵を発揮することで ある。


1. 들어가며
 2. 타자경험의 조선중화주의와 일본중화주의
 3. 조선과 일본의 문학적 타자 경험
 4. 나오며


  • 안수현 An, Soo-Hyun. 부산대학교 한국민족문화연구소 전임연구원


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