해양 전통의 발명 - 일본의 해녀(아마)와 미키모토 진주의 상징 정치 -


Invention of Maritime Tradition : The Symbolic Politics of Mikimoto Pearl and Women-divers(Ama) in Japan


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Invention of Maritime Tradition : The Symbolic Politics of Mikimoto Pearl and Women-divers(Ama) in Japan An, Mi-Jeong The purpose of this paper is to interpret the symbolism behind diving performances by women divers(Ama) in Pearl Island, Tobashi(鳥羽市) Mie Prefecture, Japan. In Pearl Island, where Mikimoto cultured pearls, it is thought that the diving show, during which local women divers bring pearl shells out of the sea, has a symbolic meaning. According to local myth, women divers belong to a group that has extracted pearls since ancient times; they are fishermen who dedicated their labour and the seafood they caught to the Ise Grand Shrine, which worshipped the ancestor god of the emperor’s family. Today, the Pearl Island women’s diving performance ‘proves’ that women divers were the ones who collected pearls and abalone and who devoted themselves to the shrine. The white clothes they wear continue tradition and suggest that the current divers are the ancient mythical women divers reborn. The pearl shells they bring from the water also represent this. Mikimoto Koukichi is reported to have been a successful pearl diver in 1906 and discovered a large number of Ise Shima’s cultured pearls. Because of this, Japan proved their superiority over the West in terms of modern science and technology and, after the Second World War, the pearl industry played a leading role in Japan’s economic revival. During the globalization of cultured pearls, the white clothes and diving performance of Shima’s women divers illustrated political power by implying that the pearls were not imitations, but instead ‘real pearls’ collected from the sea. Women divers began to wear the white clothing in the mid-19th to mid-20th centuries, intentionally making the connection to their historical use: the performance of women in ‘traditional’ dress implies it is being done for some purpose that relies on the power of tradition. I interpreted that this performance and Mikimoto’s cultured pearls reflect the dream of world conquest through the golden age of the pearling industry and Japan’s economic revival after the Second World War. At the same time, the cultured pearls also implies the pain of war and depression. Furthermore, the symbolic politics of the combination of pearls and women divers bring together an invariant relationship between the political and diver groups that appears in mythology. The act of diving into the sea and the women divers’ white clothes demonstrate the power of tradition.


Ⅰ. 서론
 Ⅱ. 연구 배경
  1. 전통과 상징 정치
  2. 오리엔트 진주와 채취자들
 Ⅲ. 이세신궁과 해녀의 신화
  1. 신화 속 진주와 해녀
  2. 이세신궁과 시마해녀
 Ⅳ. 미키모토 진주의 탄생과 탈신비화
  1. 이세시마의 진주 양식
  2. 미키모토 진주의 세계화와 반발
  3. 확장과 부침
 Ⅴ. 결론


  • 안미정 An, Mi-Jeong. 한국해양대학교 국제해양문제연구소 HK연구교수.


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