‘에밀레종’ 전설의 일본어 번역과 식민지시기희곡의 정치성 -함세덕의 희곡 「어밀레종」을 중심으로-


A study on Japanese translation of “the Emile Bell” legend and “Emile Bell” by Ham-sedeok


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The goal of this study is to analyze the records of the legend of the Emile Bell, elucidating the influence of the colonial Japanese translations on the Korean records of the legend. The very first records of the legend are the English translations by missionaries. However, these poems or short introductory texts do not specify the temporal or spatial background of the story and focus only on the motif of sacrificing a child in the process of forging a bell. They lack explicit description of the characters and narrative structure, also not showing any relation to the Bell of Bongdeoksa. Only after the 1920’s, when the legend was documented by the Japanese, the records began to convey clear portrayal of the characters, structured narratives and the link to the Bell of Bongdeoksa. Hamaguchi’s “Play Daughter Sacrifice Story” was the first to establish the motifs of “the Emile Bell” legend by explicitly depicting the characters and showing a concrete narrative. Nakamura’s “The Bell of Bongdeoksa” represented the story in connection with the Bell of Bongdeoksa for the first time. Osaka’s record first mentions a woman who voluntarily gives her child as a temple offering. Those records by the Japanese influenced the records by Korean researchers after the 1930’s. The texts feature a range of representations of women, classified into slip-resistance, slip-conformity and voluntary-offering types. The representations of slip-resistance type later developed into the image of women criticizing the Japanese Empire for mobilizing the people of Korea by force. Voluntary-offering type, in combination with slip-conformity motif in artist novels, developed into the image of women used for the propagation of the war ideology. In the light of the images of women discussed above, “the Emile bell” by Ham-sedeok can be seen as a criticism of the “mother of military nation” ideology. Despite the apparent pro-Japanese framework, his work shows how Ihwanyeo resists to the unjust authority that demands sacrifice of a child and thus points out the violent nature of the ideology forcing mothers to send their children to the battlefield.


本論文では、「エミレ鐘伝説」の記録の特徴を分析し、植民地時期日本人の手による採録・翻訳された伝説が以後韓国人の記録や文学作品に如何に関わったかを検討し、咸世德の「エミレ鐘」の親日の構造と母性モチーフを分析した。 「エミレ鐘伝説」の最初の記録は、H. B. Hulbertの「The Korean Legend on the ‘Spirit of the Bell’」やConstance J. D. Coulsonの「The Sights of Seoul」のような英語の翻訳で、これら記録は時代や空間を特定せず、ただ鐘を鋳る過程で子供が犠牲されたというモチーフを含む詩或いは紹介の文章に過ぎない。具体的人物造形や叙事構造が現れ奉德寺神鐘と関わって記録されたのは1920年代の日本人の手による。すなわち、浜口良光の戯曲子供寄進(一場)」において始めて具体的人物像と叙事構造が現れ「エミレ鐘伝説」の様々なモチーフが登場し、中村亮平の「奉德寺の鐘」においてはじめて奉德寺神鐘の芸術性を説明するため「エミレ鐘伝説」が活用された。また大坂六村の「奉德寺の鐘」において始めて自発的に子供を普施した女が登場する。 これら日本人の手による記録は、1930年代以後の多くの韓国人学者或いは文学者によって変容される。この記録に於ける女性像は、失言-抵抗型、失言-順應型、自発-普施型に分けられるが、失言-抵抗型は強圧によって戦争に動員された朝鮮民衆の日帝への批判意識を具現する女性像に発展し、自発-普施型は失言-順應型の芸術家小説のモチーフと結合し日鮮融和や皇国化に資したり戦争動員イデオロギーのプロパガンダ─として活用される女性像に発展する。 上記の女性像に基づき、咸世德の「エミレ鐘」を再検討すると、鐘を作るための鍮器献納運動、鐘を作る方法やシムナ姫の恋愛をめぐる対唐意識と日本との関係を通じて親日の意図を露に現れているが、娘の犠牲を強要する権力に抵抗しその残忍性に目を覚める「梨花女」の母性を通じては、強圧によって息子を戦場に送る軍国の母性というイデオロギーを批判していることが確認できた。


1. 들어가는 말
 2. 번역과 에밀레종 전설의 변용과정
  2.1 에밀레종 전설의 영어 번역
  2.2 에밀레종 전설의 일본어 번역
  2.3 한국인에 의한 에밀레종 전설의 기록
 3. 에밀레종 전설의 계보와 모성 모티프
 4. 함세덕의 「어밀레종」의 친일 구조와 모성 모티프
  4.1 함세덕의 희곡 「어밀레종」의 친일의 구조
  4.2 함세덕의 희곡 「어밀레종」의 모성 모티프와 시대 비판
 5. 맺음말


  • 金孝順 김효순. 고려대학교 글로벌일본연구원 HK교수, 일본근현대문학


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