법융(法融) 화엄사상의 일고찰


Bopyung(法融)’s Huayan Thought


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The purpose of this paper is to consider the thought of “Beopgi(法記)” which is written by Beopyung(法融). And this text is contained in Beopgyedogi-chongsurok(法界圖記叢髓錄) which is the main document of Uisang’s School. The Chongsurok,the commentary of Beopgyedo(法界圖) is composed of three sub-commentaries - “Beopgi”, “Deagi(大記)”, “Chingi(眞記)”, and these are most important texts to understand how the thought of the Uisang(義相) is succeeded to. Despite of the importance of these commentaries, there are no specific studies of these texts. By considering a large number of appearances of Chiyan(智儼) in the text of “Beopgi”,we can find a historical feature that there had been overwhelming influences of Chiyan’s huayan thought until the time of Beopyung. Also, By regarding the tendency of citing,we can know two more facts.First,he pursues the identification of thoughts between Uisang and Beopjang(法藏). These intentional persuits are,among the structure of Uisang-centered thought, the expression of intention that he tries to understand the thinkings of Beobjang. Second, he succeed to thoughts of the Dilun(地論) order as Uisang school had done. The clues of second fact can be found in the quotations of Buddha-sanzang(佛陀三藏), Huiyan(慧遠). In particular,through the quotations of Chiyan and several monks who played an significant roles in formation of Beopyung’s thought, we can draw several distinguishing characteristics of his huayan thought.And the main huayan thougts of Beopyung’s “Beopgi” can be classified into six. Above all, he emphasize the ‘Self’ as subject : One’s own Body and Mind(自身心). According to the text of “beopgi”, Everything is defined as one’s own body and mind or as a buddha of Darma realm(法界佛). These tendencies show that he succeed to thoughts of Uisang school which regards Beombu-Ocheok(凡夫五尺) or Self-body Buddha(自體佛) as important. But he would prefer to use the term ‘One’s own Body and Mind’. Second, he acknowledges the One vehicle of huayan(華嚴一乘) as two parts ; The Boundary of realization(證分) and The Boundary of Teaching(敎分), he asserts that there are no cause and effect on the boundary of realization of the One vehicle of huayan. This particular insistence can be understood that he pushes Uisang’s intention to the extremes. Third, he understands ‘Six characteristis of conditioned phenomena(六相)’ as the means(方便, upaya). This is, as expected, the result of faithful interpretation which inherited from the typical ideas of Uisang. Fourth, he considers the “inconceivable Darma(不思議法)” as the central concept in his analysis on the doctrine and develops that doctrine. Fifth, he puts the ‘True nature(眞性)’ to a central concept on interpreting ‘boundary of causal viewpoint of conditional arising(緣起分)’. The true nature is considered as the lower level of the ‘Dharma nature(法性, dharmatā)’, and it also can be the core-concept of explaining The Boundary of Teaching.


의상학파의 주요 문헌인 『법계도기총수록(法界圖記叢髓錄)』의 구성문헌인 「법기」, 「대기(大記)」, 「진기(眞記)」의「3기」에 대한 연구는 전무하다. 본고에서는 법융(法融)찬 「법기(法記)」의 화엄사상을 고찰하여, 의상의 사상이 어떻게 계승되고 전개되었는지에 대해 구체적으로 검토하였다. 법융의 화엄사상은 지엄-의상을 잇는 신라화엄 사상의 흐름을 주로 하면서 의상 이후 동아시아 불교에 큰 영향을 미친 법장의 화엄사상을 의상과 동일화시키는 차원에서 수용하는 일면이 있다. 의상 이래 중시된 지론종 사상 역시 여전히 중시되고 다. 그것은 불타삼장(佛陀三藏)과 혜원(慧遠)에 대한 인용태도로 알 수 있다. 한편, 법융의 화엄사상은 자기의 신심과 부사의불법을 강조한다는 점에서 독특하다. 자기의 신심을 강조하는 것은 의상학파 이래 자신을 중시하는 전통을 계승한 것인데, 특히 자신심이 부사의불법이라고 명언하는 것은 법융만의 독특한 정의다. 또한 화엄일승은 깨달음의 경계로서 인과가 없다고 주장함으로써, 의상이 설한 증분의 취지를 극한까지 추구하는 것도 자신심의 강조를 극대화한 것으로 해석할수 있다.이와 같이 법융의 화엄사상은 의상의 화엄사상을 충실히 계승하면서도, 독자의 문맥으로 깨달음의 현재태를 강조하는데 그사상의 독자성이 있다.


<논문 요약>
 Ⅰ. 머리말
 Ⅱ. 「법기」의 위상과 인용문헌
  1.  「법기」의 위상
  2. 인용문헌의 분류
 Ⅲ. 「 법기」의 화엄사상 
  1. 자신심(自身心)은 수행주체
  2. 일승에 인과는 없다
  3. 몸과 마음은 부사의불법
  4. 진성(眞性)은 연기분
 Ⅳ. 결론
 <참고 문헌>


  • 김천학 Kim Cheon-hak. 동국대학교 HK 교수


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