特輯論文 [ I ]

白龍城스님과 한국불교의 계율문제


Baek Yong Sung Sunim and the Issue of Korean Buddhism Precepts

백용성스님과 한국불교의 계율문제

한보광, 김정희

대각사상연구원 대각사상 제10집 2007.12 pp.81-136
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This dissertation studies on Baek Yong Sung Sunim and the issue of Korean Buddhism Precepts. Especially, this research study focused on, what so called, the great secluded precept lineage. First of all, this dissertation study starts from the research investigation on the Yong Sung Sunim’s cause in receiving the great secluded precept lineage to his endless efforts for Korean Buddhism Precepts Restoration. The first phase of receiving the great secluded precept lineage began with his acceptance of the bhiku precepts as well as the bodhisattva precepts from Sungok precept defensor at the diamond stairway in the Tongdo Temple when he was 21 years old in 1984. True receivement of the Buddhism precept lineage would not be accomplished with a simple Buddhist ceremony for ordaining the priesthood. It also requires sincere efforts in maintaining, circulating and transmitting the true essence of the precepts. Through out his priest life, Yong Sung Sunim always lived with clear precepts and kept a pride of bhiku priest although many monks took wifes and lived with the precept-broken life under the Japanese colonial period when Korean Buddhism precepts were corrupted. Yong Sung Sunim transmitted the great secluded precept lineage to his disciples. For example, as his disciples, there were Hwangyung-Jaesu sunim, Dongsan-Hyeil sunim, Danam-Donwha sunim, Goam-Sangahn sunim, Donghun-woankyu sunim, Gobong-Taesu sunim, Wounkyung-Gyhhong sunim, Whasan-Suok sunim, Ingog-Changsu sunim, Jawoun-Sungwoo sunim. In addition to them, we expect there were many other disciples. The above mentioned disciples, however, could be discovered by historical data. Yong Sung Sunim also had lots of lectures for spreading out the great secluded precept lineage directly as well as indirectly in various places. As a precept defensor monk, he made a great effort for his self-concious role. He had a speech on the precepts at the diamond stairway in the Hyoein Temple on the October 15thof 1925. At that time, Yong Sung Sunim wrote the Buddhism precept scripts, what so called as, Bumangkyung simjipum gumgangkye - danhokye - chupmun, on a jade plate. Also, he made four types of treasure seals. These events were happened for the transmission of the great secluded precept lineage. Again, he served as a precept defensor monk by having lecture on the bodhisattva precepts at the diamond stairway in the Taehung temple, which is located at the whoeryung province in the Korean Peninsula. And he led to open the seminar on the Buddhism Precepts at the Hyoein Temple on the April 8th of 1929 in terms of lunar calendar. He entrusted all his matters with his disciples after giving his precepts lamp to Dongsan-Hyeil precept defensor sunim on the November 18thof 1936. Lastly, around his entering of nirvana time on the March of 1940, he attempted to lead the Buddhist initial ceremony for ordaining the priesthood at the Mangwol Temple in the Dobong Mountainby writing the Buddhism precept scripts, what so called as gumgangkye-danhokye-chupmun. At that time, Manha precept defensor sunim happened to import the precept lineage of Gosim precept defensor sunim from China since some of Korean monks had doubt on the legitimacy of the great secluded precept lineage. Currently, the Gosim precept lineage is a major Korean Buddhism precept lineage. Both the Korean great secluded precept lineage and the Chinese Gosim precept lineage were arising from the Susangordination. However, autonomous Korean orthdox precept lineage was happened to be trembled due to some of monks whose minds sought to toadyism. Nonetheless, the Buddhism precept lineage is worthwhile to hold as long as it is maintained very well. In fact, some precept defensor monks of Manha Schooltook wives and broke their own precepts. And hence they lost their authority to transmit their way of precept to disciples. On the other hand, Yong Sung Sunim’s great secluded precept lineage has been well preserved for a long time. And it seems to be worthwhile to hold as well. The Buddhist doctrine of Susang Sukye is described in the Buddhist precepts sutra, what so called as a Bummang Sutra as well as other several sutras. Therefore, it is quite certain that the Susang Sukye is the precepts which were transmitted from the aliving time of Buddha. For the identification of Sungok precept defensor sunim who was transmitted the Buddhism precepts to Yong Sung sunim, some scholars intend to identify Jaesan sunim with him since the traces of Sungok sunim’s historical data were not clear. But it is inferred that such identification is not right. Finally, Yong Sung sunim made continous efforts in order to resurrect the legitimate precept lineage of the Korean traditional Buddhism through his life. He proposed his way of reforming Korean Buddhism toward Japanese colonial government twice at that time. He also criticized Buddhist monks of taking wives, eating meats and drinking alchors and pointed out new direction of Korean Buddhism at that time. And he hoped for the resurrection of the Korean Buddhism precept by translating Bummang Sutra into Korean letters. Through his efforts, Korean Buddhism became to face the purification movement in the years of 1960 and had a foundation for the resurrection of Korean Buddhism Jogye sect. However, it is quite sorry to watch the Korean orthodox great secluded precept lineage, which has been supported by Yong Sung sunim, is fading away but the Chinese precept lineage of Gosim precept is prevailing now. Especially, we should know that the legitimacy of Gosim precept lineage had already been lost since some precept defensor monks among the Gosim precept lineages took wives.


Ⅰ. 머리말
 Ⅱ. 瑞祥受戒 大隱律脈의 傳承
 Ⅲ. 직접 수계를 받은 제자
 Ⅳ. 大隱律脈의 傳授
 Ⅴ. 大隱律脈의 정통성과 瑞祥受戒의 문제
 Ⅵ. 禪谷律師의 행적에 관한 의문점
 Ⅶ. 한국불교 계율의 중흥
 Ⅷ. 맺음말
 「백용성스님과 한국불교의 계율문제」에 대한 논평


  • 한보광 Han Tae-Sik(Bo-Kwang). 동국대 선학과 교수.
  • 김정희 동국대 BK21사업단 계약교수.


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