『마누법전』을 통해 본 고대인도 여성에 관한 연구


Ancient-Indian Women viewed through 『Manu-smṛti』


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This study aims to reconsider of women‘s position in increasing number of religion circles specially in Buddhism, which is concerned with women's status in these days. As you can see, the women's position this era has been put higher position than any other period. Furthermore, this trend is coming out in religious area and in case of Buddhism, we are able to take Buddhist feminism. The main issue of Buddhist feminism takes place in ‘Women in Buddhism’ for instance, we persecute the real situation of women in the past time and suggest the view of women's position and rule later on. Then, is there any problems with that? In according to Émile Durkheim, religion inflects all-kinds of social aspects and it also keeps and succeeds to present customs or cultural forms. In according to his view, all kinds of religion should consider the reality ahead. In other word, when we talk about women in Buddhism, see need to consider the reality of Indian-women in those day. Thus this research is supposed to think about women in India as a proposition before dealing with women in Buddhism. Especially Buddhism is based on the Brahmanism society which neglects women and there were more than 50 percent bhikkhu from Brāhmaṇa in saṃgha, then it is certain that there are Brahmanism and Hinduism views of womanhood in Buddhism women's view background in Śākyamuni and later. Among existing materials, what shows the ancient-Indian women's situation best is Manu-smṛti. Especially it is nearly same with the timing of compilation of the first Buddhist Texts, so that it can be very important data to understand the view of bhikkhu about women. Therefore, we can guess that it has high possibility to be inflected. Eventually we are able to understand the view of bhikkhu about women through its of Manu-smṛti in compiling period. Moreover we might get a slight understanding of women's view in Buddhist. This study reveals that the sexual-discrimination in Buddhist Texts is not having no concern with reality of Indian-women at that time. In addition it is to indicate that the discussion of women in Buddhism should be carried out in these facts.


Ⅰ. 연구의 목적 및 텍스트의 한계
 Ⅱ. 고대인도의 여성관
  1. 고대 인도여성의 성적 자유
  2. 고대 인도여성의 위상 변화
 Ⅲ. 『마누법전』의 여성관
 Ⅳ. 맺음말


  • 구자상 Ku, Ja-sang. 동아대 석당전통문화연구원 연구원.


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