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불교사찰의 靈塔園의 도입과 설계기준

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A Study on the Design of Lotus Pagoda Garden for believers in Buddhist Temples

불교사찰의 영탑원의 도입과 설계기준

심재학

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This study intends to consider funeral culture and environment shown in temples so as to settle cremation system which is controversial around the society and lead funeral systems to right direction. In addition, this study intends to prepare design criteria for building up lotus pagoda garden in buddhist temples with buddhist concept introduced so as to present alternatives for establishing reasonable funeral environment, and it also intends to present the alternatives of design for lotus pagoda garden with the concept applied. First of all, this study pointed out two problems of lotus pagoda garden introduced in current buddhist temples: Inordinate establishment of lotus pagoda garden over excessive area and indiscreet formulation of lotus flower pagoda. Then, the study focused on the right direction for the solution of those problems. This study also noted the right application in compliance with current relevant laws and the inherent dogma and faith system of buddhism for the establishment of lotus pagoda gardens. As a result of the study, it can be found that the cremation system has been followed as a funeral method since the time before the introduction of Buddhism into Korea and the system was settled as our inherent funeral method with certain formalities accompanied by the introduction of buddhism. It was also found that Pudo sector (memorial monument area) which is usually shown in traditional buddhist temples originally intended to be the representative funeral culture facilities of temple so as to enshrine the tomb pagoda of buddhist monks. According to Korean history, however, the burial system originally led by noble classes since the mid of Choseon dynasty resulted in wrong or distorted funeral culture. Moreover, it has still yielded some negative effects in terms of land use. Thus, the Korean government has been recommending the cremation system by enacting 'Law on Funeral Affairs", and many Koreans has been also positively recognizing the cremation system. Following these movements, it is recommended that the buddhist society should more positively accept the cremation system and make various efforts to establish funeral environments for enshrining the last in more comfortable ways. In fact, however, it is shown that inordinate establishment of funeral environment and indiscreet use of pudo pagoda types have rather done harm to the environment of temples. Accordingly, this study presented the recommendable design criteria for lotus pagoda garden and the corresponding alternatives of design so as to provide a guidance for the establishment of lotus pagoda garden in temples in the future. In compliance with current 'Law on Funeral Affairs', the study established the area of lotus pagoda as 500㎡, which is introducible into current temples, and presented the corresponding design criteria. The design criteria presented in this study is as follows: First, the design concept of lotus pagoda sector was made so as to embody immanent meanings such as life is death and death is life as well as nirvana in terms of buddhism. Second, the site plan of lotus pagoda sector had divided spaces in connection with the basic facilities and the ancestor memorial ceremonies in temples. Third, the type of lotus pagoda sector was differently designed depending upon the subject of operation, the type of location, the subject of enshrinement and the type of placement. Fourth, the type of lotus flower pagoda modeled itself on monk's Pudo pagoda, but the former was designed to be different than the latter in terms of type. Fifth, in case of the area of facilities, the size of lotus pagoda and the unit area for spatial composition were calculated in 0.09㎡ of unit area, on the basis of the volume of cremated ashes and the resulting size of charnel container, while the standard area was calculated in consideration of worship, traffic and maintenance according to the subject of enshrinement. If the criteria is applied to 500㎡ as the area available for installation in compliance with current relevant laws, 400㎡ except 20% of landscape area is the area available for installation of lotus pagoda. For the calculation like this, it was concluded that about 100 sets of lotus pagodas could be installed. Meanwhile, according this design criteria , this study presented the alternatives of design for the following pagoda area: Flat type lotus pagoda garden based on its formal framework such as Hwaom Ilseung Beopgyedo; Slope type lotus pagoda modeling the type of Banya Yongseon Considering the result of this study, it can be found that the lotus pagoda garden to introduce into Korean buddhist temples absolutely needs to create its type with the content based on buddhist concept rather than general design concept. Conclusively, it is recommended that the buddhist society should establish more reasonable funeral environments in advance, before the lotus pagoda sector is going to be settled as a funeral culture according to the popularization of cremation system in the future. And it is necessary that the studies for the establishment of funeral environment should be further performed from now on.

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
 Ⅱ. 寺刹의 葬禮文化와 環境
  1. 火葬文化形成의 諸背景
  2. 寺刹에서의 葬禮儀式및 過程
  3. 寺刹의 空間構造와 葬禮環境
 Ⅲ. 靈塔園의 개념 및 導入의 當爲性
  1. 영탑원의 개념과 이슈
  2. 靈塔園造營의 背景
  3. 園의 槪念과 意味
  4. 寺刹의 機能과 靈塔園
  5. 寺刹의 靈塔園도입 當爲性
 Ⅳ. 靈塔園의 設計基準
  1. 設計槪念
 Ⅴ. 맺는 말
 ABSTRACT

저자정보

  • 심재학 Shim, Jae-hak. 공간 연구원 '정토' 원장, 동국대 불교대학원 장례문화학과 수료(석사).

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