예루살렘 교회의 보수화


The Conservatizing of Jerusalem Church


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Jerusalem Church was the matrix of early Christianity. Various kinds of followers of Jesus gathered into Jerusalem Church. They had diverse opinions on the directions of Christianity. Because each of them wanted to lead the Church to his cause, serious troubles and conflicts in the development of early Church were inevitable. Furthermore the pressure of Judaism and the zeal of nationalism of the Jews intensified these conflicts. The Hebraic Jews wished to keep Christianity within the boundaries of Judaism. Although they wanted to reform Judaism through the faith of Messiah and the hope of parousia, they continued to observe strictly the Law and to participate in the worship of the Temple. On the other hand the Grecian Jews wanted to reform more radically Judaism in the matter of the Law and the Temple. The leaders of Jews in Jerusalem could not admit the argumentation of the Grecian Jews. They persecuted the Grecian Jews of Jerusalem Church. After the Grecian Jews left Jerusalem Church, The Hebraic Jews were conservatized more and more. Because the ‘Galilees’ who were the early members of the Hebraic Jews and had more progressive opinions were banished by the rulers fo the Jews. Thereafter ‘the circumcised believers’ who were composed of ex-Pharisees and had most conservative opinions became the greater part of the Hebraic Jews. The Grecian Jews who left Jerusalem founded new church in Antioch. In founding the church they preached their Gospel to Gentiles. They argued that Gentiles could be believers without circumcision. So the Antioch Church strengthened the theology of the Grecian Jews of Jerusalem Church. ‘The circumcised believers’ dispatched men to compel the Gentiles to circumcise. The Apostolic Council was held to decide whose opinion be correct. It decided the Gentiles would not receive circumcision and observe the Law. This decision is very important because it is impossible for ordinary Jews to permit such kind of decision. Paul interpreted the decision of the Apostolic Council as abolishing the discrimination against the Gentiles. Peter and the believers of the Antioch Church agreed on his interpretation at first. But as certain men who came from James arrived, Peter and the believers of Antioch Church began to draw back and separate themselves from the Gentiles because they were afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group. So Paul left the Antioch. He propagated his faith around the Aegean Sea. Then he succeeded to found his churches. ‘The circumcised believers’ of Jerusalem Church attacked the churches of Paul and took over several churches of Paul. In event the prime movers of the early Christianity in 50-70 were ‘the circumcised believers’ of Jerusalem Church. If they had not disappeared after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman armies, the early Christianity would have gone the other way.


1. 서언
 2. 바리사이파와 예루살렘 교회
 3. ‘히브리파’와 ‘헬라파’의 갈등
 4. ‘보수화’
 5. 결어


  • 정기문 Jung Gi Moon. Kunsan University


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