According to Laozi and Heraklitus, many people are possessed by the relative knowing. They do not realize Being & Non being, Being easy & Being difficult, Being long & Being short, Being high & Being low, and Being in front of[Being the first] & Being behind[Being the last] etc. are like Moebius band on which both sides are one and the same, and are sleeping not knowing that on the circle are a start and an end common. But Dao and the Logos conceal themselves in the midst of all things, so they cannot be grasped by the seeing and hearing or by the simple thinking.
As for Laozi, the best knowing is the brightness gained by knowing the regularity of the changing in the universe and by knowing the harmony of things, and knowing how all things are steered by the Logos[proportion] is the wise thing in Heraklitus` sight. Knowing the regularity means grasping the regularity of Dao, the law that Returning to the original state is the activity of Dao. And knowing the harmony means knowing that like a bow, all things are in harmony, which Yin and Yang, the immanent character of things, make.
According to Heraklitus, the wisdom is grasping that all things flow, and that all things are in harmony through the balance of the opposits, as though bow or lyre does, and that the Logos is the proportion of the harmony and balance.
The wisdom which Laozi and Heraklitus grasp is the brightness and the prudence, and it cannot gained by the encyclopedic knowledge. the brightness and the prudence are deeply connected with deed. the human law, Laozi thinks, is not derived from Dao, and is the artificial thing. He shows that man, all thing, and even Dao must imitate and follow the Being natural.
Heraklitus thinks that the nomos[law] established by the wise man, who understood the Logos, and has the prudence, is based on the Logos, and that all the laws of human society are derived from the Logos, the divine law. While Laozi thinks that the detailed laws make society unjust, but Heraklitus thinks that people must fight on the behalf of the law.
Although they take wisdom of Dao or the Logos seriously, but concerning the origin of the human law their attitudes are different. This difference is derived from the differences of the social and political surroundings they were faced with.
노자와 헤라클레이토스에 따르면 사람은 상대적 앎에 사로 잡혀있다. 그들은 유와 무, 쉬움과 어려움, 긺과 짧음, 높음과 낮음, 앞[먼저]과 뒤[나중]가 마치 뫼비우스의 띠의 양면과 같이 서로 대대적(對待的)인 것이라는 것을 깨닫지 못하고 있으며, 둥근 원 위에서는 시작과 끝이 공동적이라는 사실을 깨닫지 못한채 마치 꿈을 꾸고 있는 것처럼 파악된다. 그러나 도와 로고스는 드러나지 않고 숨어있어서 현실적인 이목(耳目)에 쏠려 욕(欲)에 사로잡혀 있거나 단순한 생각만으로는 결코 파악할 수 없다
2. 지(知)의 문제
가. 일반인들의 지(知)
나. 지혜와 통찰
3. 결 론 ― 지혜[통찰]과 사람의 행위