하늘을 날아다니는 요괴, 덴구(天狗)의 비행(飛行)모티프




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A study on the flying motif of Dengu Dengu are characterized as taking different forms and characteristics over the centuries. The dengu were originally thought to be monsters that looked like winged birds. Thisimage was embodied in the Gonjaku Monogatarishu, published during the Heian period. In the middle ages, dengu were described as ascetics of the Shugendo sect, characterized by an unusually large nose and a red face. In the modern ages, they have come to be depicted as ridiculous, humorous creatures, easily tricked by humans. Although they have changed in their appearance over the centuries, dengu are still described as using their wings to fly. But the supernatural powers ascribed to dengu as ascetics of Shugendo are closely associated with mountain worship and Esoteric Buddhism. It is not only the dengu that possess occult powers for flying in the sky. We can also find tales of Buddha, Buddhists and many other gods flying in the sky, flying on monk's canes in the Historical Records of the Three Korean Kingdoms, as well as instances of Buddhist monks riding clouds. It is well known that with the arrival of Buddhism from China and Korea, Buddhist scriptures had an enormous effect on Japanese folk tales. Therefore, it seems that the dengu's ability to fly most likely derived from the supernatural powers detailed in the Buddhist scriptures.


天狗は時代によって各々違う形態と性格を持つのが特徵で、はじめは羽で飛行する鳥の形の神秘化された妖怪であった。このような天狗のイメージは平安時代の󰡔今昔物語集󰡕で確認できる。中世には修驗道の行者の姿をして鼻が大きく赤い顔の天狗が現れて、近世になって人間に騙されて間抜けな諧謔的存在に表現されていた。このように時代によって天狗の形態が変化されたが、羽を着けて空を飛ぶという性格は一貫している。しかし、修験道の山伏と一体化した天狗の神通力は仏教の山岳信仰と密教が結び付いたのである。 空を飛ぶ神通力を持っているのは天狗に限られたことではないと思われる。佛典に現れた仏⋅佛弟子⋅様々な神たちが空を飛び回って、韓國の󰡔三國遺事󰡕には飛ぶ錫杖、雲に乗る僧侶など空を飛ぶ話が登場する。 佛典は中國⋅韓國を通じて日本に傳來し、大きな影響を与えたのは周知の事實である。したがって、天狗の飛行の能力は日本の固有のものではなく、佛典の神通力から始まったと思われる。


Ⅰ. 서론
 Ⅱ. 불전에 나타난 신통력의 세계
 Ⅲ. 『삼국유사』에 나타난 비행모티프
 Ⅳ. 덴구의 속성 비행 모티프
 Ⅴ. 결론


  • 류희승 성균관대학교 강사, 일본문화


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