교황 Gregory 7세의 로마 교회관과 성전(holy war)관


A sudy on Gregory VII's viewpoints of the Roman Church and Holy War


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The pope Gregory Ⅶ's reform plan had identified devastated Roman city with the Roman Catholic Church as an apostle see. The Roman church centered upon the two great basilicas, in the south-east St John Lateran, and in the north-west St Peter's. They made the eternal power of Christ and his apostles and saints tangibly present in the city that was the setting of papal rule and the center of pilgrimage.
St Peter was the universal father and lord of all churches, lands, and individual Christians. His authority rested upon Christ's words to him in the New Testament. As mother, the Roman church was no mere symbol or emotional focus, its role was active and all-pervading as the active center of Christians unity and as the source of authentic faith and discipline. The obligation to follow Rome went far beyond legal duty. It was as the bond between good sons and their mother. Gregory followed the convention of his age by accepting that the enormous variety of rules from papal, synodical, and other sources which were inherited from the past constituted a kind of common law of the church. Whenever these tests were not satisfied, or when custom needed to be refined in the form of law, the pope had a right and a duty to make law.
Pope Gregory Ⅶ was concerned for new knight and merchant classes. So he made penance rules on these people in Synods of November of 1078 and 1080. He ruled that anyone whose avocation in life could not be followed without sin - he instanced knights, merchants, and officials, and fell into grave sin, could not do true penance unless he laid aside his avocation and followed the counsel of religious men about his way of life.
Pope Gregory Ⅶ planned to cross to Constantinople and help Christians who, being greatly vexed by the Saracens, eagerly besought his aid. So his hope was reunion of separated Eastern church. The reunion of the Churches was an especial concern of Gregory's earliest years as pope. St. Augustine of Hippo had, for the first time in Christian history, put forward a theory of the "just war." The clergy had not generally accepted this idea in middle of 11th century and took ambiguous attitude. The change of mind that occurred in the late eleventh century was largely owing to one man, pope Gregory Ⅶ. His reign saw the proclaiming of a new kind of soldier-saint. And earthy warfare could be an authentic part of the militia Christi. Following the change made by Gregory Ⅶ in the Church's attitude toward warfare, the Crusade offered the knight the remission of sins in and through the exercise of his martial skills. Even though Gregory did not rise expedition to the East, because of struggle with king Henry Ⅳ, his Crusade idea continued to armed pilgrimage during the next centuries.


I. 머리말
 II. 로마 교회론
  1. 순례지 로마
  2. 로마 교회와 성 베드로의 관계
 III. 속죄 규정
  l. 1078년 11월 시노드
  2. 1080년 사순절 시노드
 IV. 성전론
  1. 성전 이념의 발달
  2. 교회에서의 모호한 태도
  3. 동방교회와의 관계
 V. 맺음말


  • 이영재 Lee, Young-Jae. 숭실대학교


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