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정도전의 경학관과 성리학적 질서의 지향

원문정보

Jeong Do Jeon(鄭道傳)'s view of Confucian text studies(經學觀), and his pursuit of Neo-Confucian order

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초록

영어

In this article, the bases of Jeong Do Jeon's philosophy in terms of Confucian classic texts, and the characteristics of his political ideas(政治思想), are examined. Jeong Do Jeon explained Ju Hi's annotation(註釋) of Four texts and Five classics(四書五經), and the issue of humans and the society, with concepts such as 'Ih-Gi'/理氣(Ih and Gi elements of the universe), 'Taegeuk'/太極(Taegeuk principle of the universe) and 'Seongjeong'/性情(nature of human beings). He reasserted Confucianism's 'Way of the universe (天道)' and 'Way of the humans(人道)' through Daehak and Jungyong, understood Confucianism's suggestion of how to govern the world(經世論) through Noneo(Confucius' words) and Maengja(Mencius' words), and commented upon the task of building one's character and then leading the others('修己治人') and suggested the 'line of legitimacy(道統)', through his interpretation of the Five classics(五經).
Jeong Do Jeon presented a centralized format of political governance and a concept of governance led by the ministers, based upon the teachings of Juryae/周禮. He criticized Buddhism as heresy, tried to establish a protocol-based Confucian order by implementing the dictations of 'Juja Garyae' throughout the society, and supported a public and official relationship between people & entities built upon righteous(義) & public(公) elements, based upon the notion of a 'righteous cause(名分論)', Chunchu's grand righteousness(春秋大義) and the theory of 'Universe's reason and humans' desire(天理人欲說)' of Neo-Confucianism.
Yet in subsequent periods Jeong Do Jeon's philosophy was not appreciated for what it was worth, in terms of politics and philosophy. In a political reality, he was killed as a treacherous figure under the charge of treason and of staging the insurrection of the princes, and after King Taejong rose to the throne a negative evaluation of his actions became complete. He was not admitted into the Munmyo/文廟 shrine and was not paid any respect in its services(從祀). A lot of Seoweon/書院 schools were erected, yet his achievements and their academic values were not reevaluated. Kim Jong Jik or other Sarim figures who were faithful to Neo-Confucianism, and Joseon dynasty Confucian scholars like Shin Heum or Heo Gyun also maintained a negative attitude toward Jeong Do Jeon.
This means that the charges that Jeong Do Jeon faced, committing treason, was established as a nationally official fact. It was a result of the Joseon society, which embraced Neo-Confucianism as its own doctrine(國是), establishing the 'line of legitimacy' in Neo-Confucian studies(學統), neither with the criteria to base such line upon facts regarding actual exchanges(收受) of studies nor with individuals' accomplishments, but with the criteria to base such line upon an obligatory determination to realize the spirit of righteousness(義理) in the world.
Even if he had been negatively viewed for the duration of the Joseon dynasty period, we can still reevaluate his philosophy in many different ways. No matter what kind of negative reviews had been suggested over the years, Jeong Do Jeon should be noticed for his vetoing Buddhism and promoting Neo-Confucianism, as had been already acknowledged by Confucian scholar Gweon Geun who lived in the same period with Jeong, by Lee Deok Mu who lived in the latter half period of Joseon, and by many people who still study Jeong's thoughts after some five hundred years.

한국어

정도전은 주자의 사서오경(四書五經)의 주석(註釋)을 받아들이고, 세계와 인간, 사회를 성리학의 리기(理氣), 태극(太極), 성정(性情)으로 설명하였다. 《대학》과 《중용》을 통하여 천도(天道)와 인도(人道)를 재확인하고 《논어》와 《맹자》를 통하여 유학의 경세론(經世論)을 이해하였으며, 오경(五經)을 통하여 수기치인(修己治人)의 학을 말하고 도통(道統)을 제시하였다.
정도전은 《주례》에 의한 중앙집권체제와 재상정치론을 제시하였다. 불교를 이단으로 비판하였고, 주자가례의 시행을 통하여 유교의 예적 질서를 확립하고자 하였으며, 성리학의 명분론(名分論) 및 춘추대의(春秋大義)와 천리인욕설(天理人欲說)을 기초로 의(義)와 공(公)에 의한 공적 관계를 내세웠다.
그런데 정도전은 정치적․사상적으로 제대로 평가받지 못했다. 왕자의 난을 일으켰다는 이유로 반역, 간신으로 죽임을 당하고, 태종이 즉위하면서 정도전의 부정적인 평가는 확립되었다. 문묘종사(文廟從祀)에 배향되지 못하였고, 김종직, 신흠, 허균과 같은 조선 유학자들은 정도전을 부정적으로 인식하였다.
이는 정도전이 모반을 꾀하였다는 점이 국가의 공식적인 사실로서 인정받게 되고, 성리학의 도통(學統)을 학문 수수(收受)의 사실여부나 학문 업적보다는 의리(義理) 정신의 실천에 그 기준을 삼은 결과였다.
조선시기에 정도전을 부정적으로 인식해도, 사상면에서 달리 볼 수 있는 여지가 있다. 정도전과 동시대 유학자인 권근이 평가하고, 500여년이 지난 지금의 정도전 연구에서 인정하듯, 정도전이 불교를 배척하며 성리학을 진흥한 공을 받아들일 수 있기 때문이다.

목차

요약문
 1. 머리말
 2. 통유적 성격의 진유 지향과 사서오경 이해
  1) 통유적 성격의 진유 지향
  2) 四書五經 이해
 3. 성리학적 질서의 지향과 계승 문제
  1) 성리학적 질서의 지향과 재상정치론
  2) 경세론 중시의 성리학과 계승 문제
 4. 맺음말
 참고문헌
 Abstract

저자정보

  • 도현철 Do Hyeon-chul. 연세대학교 교수, 국사학

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